Customary VIETNAM ( collected by Mr. Tran Bao Hao )
Traditional culture of Vietnam is formed on the basis of agricultural civilization . The life of each human Vietnam are closely connected with the village , home .
In Vietnam society , people gathered in the village and the fields where the ward where the market opportunity . Village and Ward was born from the early infancy of the nation . Gradually , these organizations increasingly stable and more closely .
On the basis of consensus , in the village of village law , called conventions , artisans in the craft village , city ward conventions job there .
The spirit of these key conventions , precinct conventions stem from habits and customs of the village , ward , is the richness of detail is vivid in the framework of national legislation . Museum Han - Nom in Hanoi and in the locality is preserved thousands of conventions , precinct conventions so.
As customary in Vietnam, " is the first betel story " , although betel cheap but contains many emotional meaning , rich and poor who may have , there are always areas . Betel coupled with greetings , polite people do not " eat betel surface " means they have continued to give throughout . Because betel is " the beginning of the reception " is a symbol of respect , common in the sacrifice , the ancestors fact , funeral , wedding , ordination , celebration ...
* The custom of betel chewing
Legend from the Hung Vuong and attached to a well-known fairy tale " story betel " . 4 th betel ingredients include : cau ( sweet taste ) , betel leaves ( spicy ) , root ( bitter taste ) and lime ( the concentration ) . Betel items shown bold lifestyle unique ethnic Vietnam . Old record book that " betel chewing mouth fresheners , lower gas , pepper rice " .
Betel , making it close and open with each other. Multiply betel fun , guests are invited to betel , betel wedding party to celebrate disk , holidays , new year , festival betel to get acquainted with strangers , friends , acquaintances betel tri tri sound century . Betel also make people warm up in the cold winter day , sadness lime appease the funeral home , sad to be shared by their sympathetic friends every village . Betel is also an expression of devotion of generations after generations ago trays so on worship of the ancestors of the Vietnamese people have betel nuts .
* Smoke pipe
Will the lack of mentioning if betel without mentioning pipe tobacco . Most women chew betel and betel is also the story of men, pipe tobacco stick with them when happy, sad even a lifetime . Pipe tobacco cigarettes smoked in pipes , pipe bowls , in order for the remote handy when smoking in the smoking pipe ( pipe for smoking while plowing the fields in the so-called smoking pipe )
Anniversary festival , Sacrifice
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Archaic notion that we do not own many peoples of the world things are by nature creates a soul , every kind , including minerals , plants also have life of its own . Everything in creation of tangible or intangible , concrete or abstract concept of yin and yang bears , boars are the same . That is the origin of fetishism does continue to exist in many nations around the world and a few mountain peoples in our country .
In one , the stone on the temple , the first multi- family plants , wells , forests also store people's worship , as it is a symbol , where the mystery of God 's angel or something . It is " fear god fear of the banyan tree " that worship the banyan tree , under which no further fetishism . Like it Buddha , Christ Church , kneeling before the statue of Buddha , statues of Jesus , the Spirit festival , dragon knelt before the throne of god , but god clear signal , not as continuous log stone fetishes .
Today only a few traces in customs . For example , the average lime princesses in the house , no one has identified what is her lord , but lime pot symbolizes the Lord 's authority , which also can mean lime . As the bride , mother of Lane shelters also brought under the lime pot , but meaning shelters still hold power . When you accidentally break the lime pot bring the remaining pieces per store in that solemn temples or give up , do not throw in that unclean . Go for the precious wood , wood sacred only be used to build temples , churches . People do not use parashorea housing . Once upon a crowd of firewood in accordance washed downstream , if parashorea , the tool also wearing robes bowing out .
Lunar New Year
* Eve & Mass except President
Perhaps heaven and earth had its beginnings have ends , a year begins there must be an end, began at midnight and ended at New Year's Eve .
What is Eve ? As Sino-Vietnamese dictionary meaning of Dao Duy Anh old handed , new picks . Because of this sense , should annually at communication between two years old , this new , perhaps minus hoarding is president last hours of the old year is about to begin through the new year . At this time , people have perhaps Vietnam under presidents Except ceremony . The significance of this ceremony is to take away all the bad things of the past year 's coming to pick up the good things of the coming new year . President except holidays ceremony was to " get rid of evil" , so the word " unless President " . Mass except at the president 's Eve celebration should also named Eve celebration .
* Offering one of the festival 's Eve
I continue to believe that every year there is a practice he considers the human controller , all in the work itself handover to other gods , so he sacrificed to practice his old and new welcome . Eve Mass was offered in the outdoors is because the visualization tool in minutes old former monarch handing out work to control new king always go military , troops filled the air of the crowded , rush ( naked eye but do not visible) , even the military had barely eaten . Those that moment , the family gave away chicken , cakes , fruits , whole food offerings cold outside , the heart of the sun had bid farewell to the old year and its governing welcome the new heaven and the duty to govern the earth next year . Since the handover , the takeover of the utmost urgency should not be in the position in which the slot Kha bowl tray can only eat a few seconds to stop or carry a hurry , even witness the heart of the host city .
* Fix Eve celebration
It Eve worship at the temples , the text only in the neighborhood as well as at home . Eve altar was set up in mid-air . A outlined incense , incense above average , two oil lamp candle or two . The offerings include : the prime pork or chicken , rice cakes , confectionery , betel nuts , fruits , liquor and gold stocks , sometimes more hat out of the Great United khien.Den hours unless President , bell drum up , the owner of the theater festival , ceremony and subsequent follow people , sincerely pray you bless the new king out of control lead to a lot of luck. The temples Eve but also offering vegetarian offerings . Today, at the home they still worship with reverence Eve as the altar ancient but more simplified , usually placed in the yard or doorstep .
· The Earth warming ceremony
After finishing Eve worship , homeowners also professed crude , ie gods ruled in the house. The offerings are similar to Eve ritual .
· Those traditions in the night except President
After celebrating New Year's Eve , all the stuff we own traditions that so far , from rural to urban areas , many people still done respected .
Pagodas , communal houses, temples : Eve Mass at the finish , we pull together the family go to church , temple , shrine , power to pray , for good luck , to ask Buddha , God bless the maintenance of himself and family and on this occasion people usually ask first hexagram card .
Follicle direction exodus : As holidays go , people cocoon exodus hours and directions , go in the right direction right now for good luck throughout the year .
Luck : Walking holidays pagodas , shrines , complete electrical one in front of family customs , the temple gate called a tree branch buds implies bringing about " taking fortune " Buddha Spirit of God given land . Filtration were brought before the altar plug until dry remnants .
Huong Loc : A lot of people instead of applying the flanks fortune fortune in houses, temples , pagodas, temples burned by a handful of incense , pray standing before the altar , and then bring it to plug into the bottle incense incense altars their home . flames symbolize prosperity is taken from the place of worship of the Buddha that is, please , bless St. thrive year round .
Stormed home : Often it is a cocoon " easy chickened " out away from family before except president , then president , then please ceremony except taste buds bud or two scenes in temples carry on. Now return to the New Year and have this person will " stormed the house " for his family , bringing good to the family throughout the year . If no one had the chickened easy thanks to another good chickened out early the first day of the Steam client prior to Tet , to bring people good luck facile .
Spring holidays continue
* On the ground breaking ceremony
Groundbreaking ceremony began in China after transfer to Vietnam . East Turkestan ie earthquakes , and earthquakes have while lounging ritual to start the application process to land for a new year .
Every year , after the third day of Tet , the village often broke ground for the villagers to dig hoe tiller can be . The level elders and all the members are appointed health and economic damages . Posted offerings include incense , betel wine , clothing and honeysuckle code map . During the ceremony , he presided hoe the ground a few puffs to get a piece of land located on the altar , " the wall " with people lounging please be groundbreaking . After the ground breaking ceremony for the new village to the ground . Who picks dug before the ground breaking ceremony was fined villagers .
* Ceremony lower
According to the custom of Vietnam, on the seventh day of January felling stated . Tree planting in the year mentioned , when preparing for Tet lime with white bows in front of the house to draw " demonic except " this is lowered .
If the ceremony is called lower opening of the House . On this occasion , besides offering outdoor ceremony between heaven and earth , we also fix the price worshiping , worshiping mammon Congva Turkey . Usually after the holidays , all new regular job is started again.
* Ceremony agricultural Spirit
Shennong ie the first Chinese emperor had taught husbandry . Ie ceremony Shennong Shennong ceremony to pray for the king of the farming season and thriving .
On the annual calendars of the Chinese usually draw a shepherd driving a buffalo . Ie king shepherds Shennong , also buffalo symbolizes agriculture . Figure buffalo shepherds and annual change depending on the basis of estimates of meteorological forecasting crop year good or bad . In any season , Shennong presentable shoes , but in any famine , Shennong seems to rush headlong shoes should only have one leg . Changes color depending on the buffalo out of every five , yellow , black , white , green , red right with Kim , wood, water , fire, earth . Every year , on the court at the old Spring as well as in the provinces and sacrificial procession Shennong . It is molded buffalo and tuongThan Agriculture has the look and colors true to estimate crop that year . Then pick up the radio to buffalo and Shennong object to make sacrifices . After each of the world , buffalo and Shennong objects are stored in a warehouse lifting or buried .
* Ceremony charged
Naturalization ceremony filled plowing ceremony , also known as king by the Shennong place. Like other rituals , ceremonies charge of the vessel was introduced to us . Every year in early spring , the king rattan bed itself an example for the land to the people and celebrating charged . Following the king , princes , literary and military officials , dignitaries , local veterans and the plow . In the provinces , the communes also charged ceremony ... In the provinces , the provincial agency charged with starting the plowing ceremony in society and the highest dignitaries in society . Depending on the dynasty celebrate solemnly charged at times , at once simple and each locality has its own traditions .
* Cung Le Thuong Nguyen or full moon in January
Originally ceremonies on the fifteenth day of January. From the court to the people we have in this day Buddhist ceremony . We have a saying : " Buddha throughout the year with no full moon in January ." Continue to believe that the full moon day in January, the Buddha descended at the temple to witness the sincerity of the Buddhists . In this occasion always crowded temple to worship .
* Ceremony publication
The publications are cleaned in years , in addition to the spring festival under the old procedure was chosen good day , a good time to do that is to use the publication ceremony close to a printing office , only example .
Often the first document is sealed good text . Continue implementation of this publication , In the provinces , the government , district , Europe , ancient society publications officer were each selected date of publication and edit worshiping gods keep the seal of the press during the ceremony .
Qing Ming Festival
Thursday is more of " cross -dual air " and was considered a person from the East annual liturgy . Advanced Thanh Minh Xuan Lap after 45 days. Literally , the bar is in the air , there is a bright intelligent . When the weather through the spring equinox , the sun of spring rains dust has expired , the sky became clear, bright weather is to Thanh Minh ( usually begins in late March or early April is really depending on each lunar year ) .
Qing Ming Festival
Thanh Minh 's day , as well as many other Asian nations . Our people can go visit the graves of the ancestors and worshiping ancestors after the ancestral graves .
Mass grave Algae : Algae tomb was renovated tomb clean . Thanh Minh 's holidays they bring shovels to fill the grave for big agriculture and weed out those trees grow wild can climb grave violations to the remains of deceased relatives . Then plug the stick of incense , burning votive or put flowers offered to the souls of the deceased .
Besides the tomb custody , care , there are derelict tomb , not the visit . Those who are not from the benevolence inexorable usually plug a stick of incense , burning votive holds for these tombs . At the grave where tha ghost also establish a common am to worship the graves derelict beings known as Am and am having a new contract soon she lights incense at worship .
People go ancestral graves are neatly dressed . These people all year round and often working away on this occasion to return to the ancestral graves of the ancestors and the family reunion . Often people go to ancestral graves from early morning until nearly noon .
The practice of ancestral graves : Often people go into details ancestral graves Qingming static cloudy sky , and then invite the ancestral spirits taste in the direction of his children on this occasion . But there are many people in ancestral graves on occasions before and after Tet . Many villages in Ha Dong province in the lowlands , the water service , and the lands were flooded graveyard , people go ancestral graves in early September , after the water has been withdrawn . Either go public on the ancestral graves to visit the graves of ancestors is also good. Think of the first part that is original thinking , thought to sources .
Worship day Qingming Festival : Qingming Festival is an opportunity for children worshiping ancestors correction after the tomb . Holidays also bring out the hard tissue repair , but that's just a personal worship graves . And then people still worship at the altar of the ancestors and all the ancestors professed exterior of coordinated effects . People of modest salt Qingming day , meaning there weeding , weeding or not there is also a drive -off , chicken with floral , tea, wine , gold stocks . And at the same time also the ancestor worship of the soil, as in every occasion .
According to ancient traditions , our people take death anniversary ( death ) as important , so that day , but to visit the grave , depending on family circumstances and depending on the location of the dead that same time . This is also an opportunity to meet the family in the family , gathered to commemorate the dead and the living table keeping room . On this occasion people usually eat organizations , so -called new food basket, which was also before and after eating , as well as to meeting charming cozy prolong reunion , storytelling sentiments , doing things . Meaning " drinking water, remember its source" that can classified as habits and customs .
* On the same time
Chinese lunar anniversary is canceled or the most up to date , which is the anniversary of the death of their ancestors , grandparents , parents , day also means taboo . Originally days ago, " anniversary ceremony " called " the cavalry ceremony " , the evening before the rider has " holiday bonus " (ie anticipation ) , born descendants shopping a little sacrifice , offered to invite the ancestors to taste before . In the old days , the rich organic inviting other farmers eat first anniversary celebration usually both hydrophobic and main . Gradually, or as busy or because or because of lack of economic servitude , It is simplified to only invite guests to a
but once the fragrance , alcohol still offering betel both holidays . In summary , if properly applied traditional customs prevalent in the country before
date of death ( holiday bonus ) to the same direction , is also true date of death ( major holidays hydrophobic ) to morning worship .
* Those born in Total Hours
According ceremony : " Five Great mai god " , everyone in life is to bury the high god of organizations that pick up once the hives go see him up and bring a new level on how to lose that his client survey .
By means permanent minority ( 9 teams) : High , up , nest, parts ( born on 4 ) ; himself and death , religion , religious cleared , mystical religion ( 4 under his birth ) . Such is life made only 4 hours ( high , up , nest, parts ) that is hydrophobic ( or can) stuff ( or trying to ) , grandparents , parents . From " High " or more generally called ancestral worship hour is not generally enter into any spring that fact , or sub- aquatic world on the anniversary of the organization .
* Same time the untimely death
Those who have reached the age of the body , but when a person dies without a new wife or daughter , not a son or a son but his son is dead , became self France (no accent son ) . Those that have the same time . The worry is the death anniversary award nephew ( his son or his brother ) was established as heir . Grandchildren heirs are entitled to a portion or the entire fortune of the deceased . After losing the heirs descendants heirs to order it .
The relative under-age people ( under 16 or under 18 years of age , depending on local custom ) after the funeral announcement to please women ancestors with ancestral worship .
These people have no particular anniversary , the same time only one exception. There are also family meals any more digging a bowl of rice , chopsticks placed beside a man, as also songtrong family relatives . This ceremony but not in the spiritual , conceptual outlook for deceased relatives .
* Male female body is what any librarian ?
This is an oft-quoted line , familiar relationships between men and women only in the sense of the grapes . The man and the old woman give each other something , getting something of each other , are not directly hand , press the flashing fear , nothing signaled with equal? Two other people want to invite chew betel , betel , the shopkeeper , mid table , are free to pick and eat . Feudal rites being so severe , it is difficult to directly confess practicable, affordable painting only the eyes are secretly sneaking glances ! So the nobles often " dumb " daughter . Even from early childhood form of gender separation .
* What is new hybrid ?
In ancient feudal society " South librarian any female relatives " should need a marriage broker . If you love each other , should not pimping wedding will be blamed . In the old society , there are specialized profession pimping , if age is just beautiful pair became lifelong benefactor . In the new society , today there are still Matchmakers , matchmakers today is the mentor , mentor for young couples build lasting happiness . The matchmakers are mass media , singles clubs , service companies ....
* Ceremony matter what name mean ?
As the ceremony to the younger son asked her name , now called the ceremony "slow lane " is holiday or " bold " .
In ancient marriage can only focus homogamy or not , there is not the old , conservative families learn new " Gong, content , language , behavior ." Not only the boys , before marrying many wives he knew not , but the husband is the father asked proactively go hand -in-law daughter-in-law does not know .
* The area dodder
Dodder hymen based disaster area because she first came across him in a moonlit night , sitting control toward the moon, behind a red rope pouch . The old man said that the letter containing the engagement of the galaxy , and the red wire to the couple tied the husband to the wife . One day , as there is in the market to meet a one-eyed old woman carrying a baby girl , the old man said out told the other girl to be his wife , because she angry , sent his servants to kill her baby go . The servant stabbed the boy in the crowd and fled . Fourteen years later , Cheung Chau is the Vice Use Vuong Thai girls for marriage for her. The best solution beautiful daughter , between the eyebrows can stick a cotton makeup gold tomorrow . United has nearly asked the new wife said : As a child , her breasts were closing on a little fair assurance crazy . Because she asked again : Is not her breasts with one eye ? The wife said yes . Because she recounted the last couple appreciate each other as the sun was predestined fate .
* The custom of bride
Bride is a backward practice , binds both the boys and girls , have to do for the bridegroom to give up that which disadvantaged status fell into the girl , anyway reputation husband 's life , though stars as well as for the other guy to be afraid , so unlucky fate ham hiu .
It would have to be husband and wife , into the interior part , is happy for both families but met her uncle to her daughter 's side fastidious , any bride 's clothes , shoes hats , any toroidal rings , earrings , money face , she smiled ... so the boys have to give up or running around , worried 're done plowing repayment , but from the very married , meaning spouses , the connexion has been dented , which is uncertainties germs later .
In some cases the needy girls can not provide enough power village charter , requiring the boys to worry fulfilled . In some cases the bride 's parents also had five of the ten times , and after the body , even to her daughter , son-in many things, but also to avoid high bride murmurs , that gossip girl conditioned his right, should not have to .
Or the family has learned the money was not challenged , that challenge of challenging literature chosen words and son -in-law 's home , hoping her daughter's future also , " before he goes hammock , hammock followed her ."
* Money " Cheo "
Money " Cheo " is the amount the boys loaded for the bride's village . Boys and girls get together and villages but also to reduce cross- filed . Rules of origin " cross- load " is continuous , " Lan chew " cord which is further along the road or whether at the village entrance . First , people celebrate the marriage institution , it is praise . To reciprocate , bridal delegation also included betel nuts to invite , give gifts , give donations . Gradually, more people are taking advantage of the money taps , harassment , rules become progressively worse , the court ordered abolition . Replaced it , allowing the collection of cross- village . When cross- filed for the village , ie the wedding has been recognized motivational receipt . In the old days , there was no procedure for marriage registration , the paper sheets loaded cross- considered marriage . This much amount cross for the local public as wells , roads covered , tiled , built the village gate ... For more than half a century , this practice was abolished and villages .
* Before the bride husband about what procedures need ?
When the boys started to pick strawberries together with the groom at the altar to ask the ancestors to accept since this should be husband and wife , bless centennial popular coastal beauty department , holding iron reconciled . The Mass is ended , go touting two relatives , guests , especially those on the surface , elderly , previous guest , the following people . While offering the bride to the bridegroom presented to the relationship for the vocative .
Finally , before you step out the door to go home Thanksgiving husband 's parents . Parents sitting available in a side door, if grandparents have attended in the upper left , the grandparents also sit on one side , but on the higher side . In ancient times the couple have two O Lord , today indispensable , bowed respectfully ask permission grandparents and parents . At that time , parents for giving her daughter , son -in-law something as a souvenir .
* The meaning of the holidays please strawberry and procedures
This very simple ceremony , bride before , the boy sent a two- person , usually the physician , aunt , sister of the groom putting a tray of betel , a friend asked for strawberry wine , dondau will report to the union before , ready to welcome the girls . This custom has many meanings and although conventional two families together before the date and time component bride , but to prevent any new uncertainties to the ceremony to be cautious in their wedding . This time the groom and the groom 's parents should not be so busy to the girl , who should be entrusted to a newspaper represented as parts " potential client " .
In cases where two families are too far apart or too close , two families may agree to free this holiday , or holidays please enter strawberries and strawberry as a welcome ceremony . Entering ceremony bride and bride please proceed as follows :
As the gateway to the bride's family to the bride , Group Health overhaul the page , rearrange the order after going ahead , while an old man leading a team at the ceremony ( in betel fruit tray , wine ) in advance , placed on the altar , to burn incense to lead his shoulder back into union official ceremony bride . This ceremony must be carried out very quickly . Normally offered girls finished praying manner , proactive waiver and a prefect holiday also to welcome the delegation to the boys always on .
* Mother -in-law husbands do when you start home ?
Local Etiquette in each other, but are conflicting or meaningful .
In ancient times in many areas of Nghe An , Ha Tinh mother probably continue to take a hat for the bride : Housing built before output son a copper pot , a ladle , pot placed in a pre- filled with water and the same amount in . Input port used to draw water shell toes wash hands , take a step mother to daughter hats .
The notion that Vietnam " is meant to take that element " so when someone dies , the funeral was held solemnly . The order of the day before the funeral as follows : the dead are washed clean, decent dressing , then grab a wand placed between the teeth , mouth put a handful of rice and three coins called function closes ceremony . Then put the dead lay down mats available on the ground ( in the sense " born from the earth returns to the earth " ) . Then the ceremony shroud ( shroud of white cloth ) and the initiation ( put the corpse in the coffin ) . After entering the city for the ceremony , officially mourning . Son , daughter and daughter-in-law of the deceased , of headscarves , hats banana ( or plaited straw hat ) , wearing number . Grandchildren cousins , relatives mourning dotted scarf . The day of the funeral of the dead are offered rice to early afternoon . Band plays the music Ward who , relatives , friends , visited the village . After selecting the date, time well before the funeral ceremony . Structural funeral , clinical flexibility , sperm ( where the coffin ) . Mourners go after coffin , sprinkled along the road bullion ( paper ) . By lowering ceremony vented and vented up the grave . Work done on the burial ceremony . Three days after the funeral ceremony host tomb ( grave opening ceremony ) , is 49 days public holidays failure ( also rice for the dead ) . After 100 days the mourning ceremony ( stop crying ) . After a first year anniversary , after three years ( two years in many places ) all funeral ceremony .
Today, the funeral rite was held more simply shrouding ceremony , the initiation ceremony visit , the funeral ceremony , ceremony and celebration tomb hypotension . The mourning family by dotted white towel or wear a black armband .
Spring - the season start of a year , the season proliferation of things , plants ... Between her warm weather , breezy feel free to invite each person to Congress , the pilgrimage to the source , and for fun fresh hope for good crops , human happiness .
Festival in Viet Nam so diverse and rich . According to the researchers folklore , Vietnam has nearly 500 traditional festivals large and small, spread across the country in four seasons : spring, summer , autumn and winter . Each festival brings the traits and personal values , but always towards a sacred object to be worshiped as heroes against foreign invaders , who has taught professional communication , disaster preparedness , interesting to eradicate evil , to save its rich staff level ... With the thought in mind to drink water sources , tree fruit growers in mind , the festival takes place in these vibrant area , the state , as a bridge between the past with current , making today's younger generation understand the merits ancestors , more proud of the traditional homeland of his country . Especially in our country carnival stick with villages, places , lands as an indispensable element in community life people .
Because the majority of festivals in Vietnam are often associated with historical events , people commemorate the country during the war with foreign invaders to the game play at numerous festivals often bring strong martial spirit such as crossbow competition , wrestling ( Speaker meeting ) wrestling , fighting , running contest ( the flower Assembly Khe , Nam Dinh ) , competition crossbow , throwing ( in the northern ethnic ) etc. .. festivals of ethnic people Tay Nguyen , buffalo sacrifice is regarded as the most typical . During this festival , apart from ritual buffalo sacrifice fascinating , thrilling cabaret also shield , javelin , stroke play .
The game entertainment at the festival also includes cultural activities , such as social Quan Ho singing contest , contest cooked the rice , cockfighting , woven fabric , wrestling , swinging ... Especially contest swinging , not only in appearance but also large festival is a folk game play in the New Year around the village .